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Student 1: Rebecca:
The research report, Dynamic Interplay Between Merger Process Justice and Cognitive Trust in Top Management: a Longitudinal Study (2017), provides a discussion of research study conducted in Finland with the goal of studying the interplay between perceptions of trust and justice of top management before, during, and after a merger of two service organizations.  A total of 15,000 employees were impacted by the merger. 
Researchers Kaltiainen and Lipponen administered three different surveys to employees at one-year intervals.  The first survey was conducted after the decision was made to merge the two organizations and 3,679 employees participated in that survey.  The second survey was administered approximately nine months after the merger came into effect and had 1,181 respondents.  The third survey was conducted a little over a year after the merger was completed and had only 623 respondents.
The surveys used a five-point Likert scale for assessment, with one equaling completely disagree and five equaling completely agree.  Six survey questions were used to measure process justice and four were used to measure cognitive trust in top management.  The study also measured zero-order correlations which measure correlations between variable without any controls (Statistics How To, n.d.).  The study reported the mean and the standard deviation for cognitive trust and process justice at T1, T2, and T3.  It also measured outcome favorability at T2 and T3.  I think the researchers made a good decision with regards to the scale because it allows for easy analysis and reporting of the results.  I don’t understand how the zero-order correlations, pre-merger organization, position in the organization. and age were reported, though.  I’ve attached a copy of the table to see if I could get feedback from any of you.  I also don’t understand the researchers’ analysis of the data as statistical analysis is a subject that eludes me!
Kaltiainen, J., Lipponen, J., & Holtz, B. C. (2017). Dynamic interplay between merger process justice and cognitive trust in top management: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(4), 636–647. to an external site.
Statistics How To (n.d.) What is Zero-Order Correlation? Retrieved from to an external site.
Student 2: Ronnie:
The article I chose for this discussion was, “FM Service Delivery and Quality Service Measurement in Public High Rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria: The Use of SERVQUAL and Satisfaction Index,” by Olusegun Olanrele. From the papers abstract, “this research assessed and compared the delivery of facilities management services in public high rise residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria.” (Olanrele, 2014) The study used several scales to show an overall result from different groups of respondents. FM service providers are under pressure to provide user/customer driven services and constant improvement in building performances. Due to the lack of financial resources, the FM organizations strive to manage the buildings better. Out of the 156 flats that are occupied, 76 were randomly selected while the other 38 were studied. The studied used a 4 point Likert Scale rather than five-points like the course text calls for, measuring from one pole of disagreement to the other pole of agreement (Landrum, 2014). This Likert Scale ranks the degree of importance and satisfaction. “The highest value of 4 point was ascribed to the highest level of importance and satisfaction, while the least level of no importance/satisfaction was ascribed 1 point (Olanrele, 2014).”To find the difference in expectation and perception of service delivery, the satisfaction index and mean item score was calculated.
The study shows the residents and their satisfaction with the level of service they are being provided from water, electricity, cleaning/pest control, etc. The scale shows the Mean score of Expectation, and the Mean score of Perception then gives the gap difference between the two. I believe this choice in measurement scale was successful as they concluded with both expectations and perception. It led them to find that FM providers should understand the user’s point of view and recognize where their focus should go to improve the quality and at the same time avoid overuse of resources.
Landrum, R. (2014). Research Methods for Business: Tools and Applications[Electronic version]. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Olanrele, O. O. (2014). FM Service Delivery and Quality Service Measurement in Public High Rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria: The Use of SERVQUAL and Satisfaction Index. Journal of Management and Sustainability, 4(3), 145-156. Retrieved from
Student 1: Rebecca:
For this second post, I will discuss the same study that I did for the first discussion post.  As a reminder, the title of the research study is Dynamic Interplay Between Merger Process Justice and Cognitive Trust in Top Management: a Longitudinal Study.  The report was written by Janne Kaltiainen and Jukka Lipponen and was published in 2017 in the Journal of Applied Psychology.  Data for this longitudinal study was gathered using online surveys with Likert scale, five-point statements.  One downfall of using online surveys is the low response rate (Landrum, 2014) and this was exemplified in this study.  Of the 15,000 employees impacted by the merger, only 3,679 responded to the first survey, 1,181 responded to the second survey and only 623 responded to the third survey.  The study did not mention if the surveys were conducted anonymously.  I assume they were, however, because the study also did not mention if subsequent respondents had participated in the prior survey(s).  That may have been an interesting piece of information.  Were these all unique respondents or had all respondents participated in all surveys?
Cluster sampling is used to sample groups of people, like businesses, neighborhoods, clubs, etc. and convenience sampling is used when everyone in the group is sent a survey (Landrum, 2014).  Because the surveys in this study were sent to every employee of the two companies involved in the merger, it could be said that the survey sampling used both the convenience and the cluster sampling techniques (Landrum, 2014). 
I do believe this was an effective survey type to choose.  It is my opinion that surveys need to be relatively quick and easy for respondents or they will not participate.  I, personally, do not care for open-ended questions and usually will not answer them when they are included in a survey – not for any reason other than they take more time.  Because of my own personal bias, I believe that simple, Likert type surveys are the best option for most surveys.  Even the simple survey in this study, with only eleven questions, had a response rate of 24.5% for the first survey, 7.9% for the second, and a dismal 4.2% for the third.  I believe those rates would have been even worse if the survey would have been more involved and required more time for respondents to complete.
Personal interviews may have provided researchers with more data and more respondents but the process of conducting interviews on three separate occasions with 15,000 employees would have been very time consuming and cost prohibitive.   However, to save time and money, the researchers could have done multistage sampling by randomly selecting participants from within the two organizations (Landrum, 2014).  This would have provided them with a representative population that was a reasonable size for their research.  However, this process would still be more expensive and time-consuming than conducting an online survey such that the researchers conducted.
Kaltiainen, J., Lipponen, J., & Holtz, B. C. (2017). Dynamic interplay between merger process justice and cognitive trust in top management: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(4), 636–647. to an external site.
Landrum, R. E. (2014). Research methods for business: Tools and applications [Electronicversion]. Retrieved from to an external site.
Student 2: Ronnie:
For this discussion 2 I chose the article, “Association between Catch-up Sleep and Lower Body Mass: Population-Based Study,” a study by Hee-Jin IM, MD, Shin-Hye Baek MD et al. The question is to determine if weekend catch-up sleep impacts body mass index (BMI) in the general population. The study used a sample of 2,156 subjects from ages 19-82 years old with half being male and female. This study used face-to-face interviews about sociodemographic characteristics. These characteristics are height, weight, habitual sleep duration, and time-in-bed at night on weekdays and weekend, sleep-related profiles, mood and anxiety scales, and comorbid medical conditions (Hee, et al., 2017). The rise in obesity is an important health concern today. “The increasing longevity of humans allows relatively small effects to have substantial long term consequences: sleep state (quality, duration, and timing) is one such factor (Hee, et al., 2017).”
The use of face-to-face interviews was the best choice because it offers a significant advantage in terms of the amount and the complexity of the data to be collected. Most of the characteristics could be answered in a quick phone call survey, but there could be much untruthfulness over the phone or on paper. A face to face interview would require individuals to be more truthful about their height and weight which could give a more accurate BMI.
Compared to a self-administered questionnaire it would be on paper or the internet with the same overall question and answer. The administration of the test on paper has been deficient, and as of late it is commonly online. Face-to-face would be more accurate than a mailed survey which would give a low response rate and limited capabilities for complex questions and the inability for an interviewer to clarify questions being answered (Landrum, 2014). Asking someone about mood and anxiety scale or comorbid medical conditions would permit more detail for the respondent to answer correctly or test to run. Compared to online surveys, face-to-face requires time and more resources to be expended while online is easy and inexpensive to distribute.
Hee, J. I., Shin, H., Chu, M., Yang, K., Kim, W., Seong-Ho, P., . . . Yun, C. (2017). Association Between Weekend Catch-up Sleep and Lower Body Mass: Population-Based Study. SLEEP, Vol. 40, No. 7, 1-8. Downloaded from
Landrum, R. (2014). Research Methods for Business: Tools and Applications[Electronic version]. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Student 1: Joseph:
There are many different companies that use the JIT production method, which is an abbreviation for just-in-time production. The basic roots of this system can be found in the development and application of the assembly line where work is organized in a continuous flow, and inventory and wasteful activities are removed (Vonderembse & White, 2013). The JIT system was adopted by the Japanese automaker Toyota and was very successful for them as well. There are advantages to JIT production like companies having the ability to cut costs on inventory while having a high efficiency on production lines. This is due to companies having just enough of the raw materials needed to make the goods that consumers are wanting on the production line. The type of industry that the JIT production is widely used is the automotive maker industry. This is due to automakers needing a low quantity of raw materials in their inventory system, and relying on the companies supply chain to supply the parts to make the automobiles on a daily basis (Banton, 2019). This allows for lower costs in the inventory system while increasing efficiency on the production line. While this inventory system may be beneficial to companies like Toyota, there are companies that cannot use this type of inventory system.
United Health Group is a company that I worked for as a System Administrator, and the whole home pharmacy is a production line that could not use the JIT inventory system. Companies that use the JIT inventory system depend on the prices that they pay for the materials to be constant, and in the Healthcare Industry, the prices are anything but constant. More than that the types of medications that patients need vary every day, and there is no constant or set amount of medications that we can have on hand for the production line. There where many days when we would have high orders of cancer medication, but also low orders on pain medications. The very next day it would change and it could be the opposite of the drugs in high demand the day before. There were too many variables to allow for a set number of medications in the inventory system for the production line.
Banton, C. (2019). Just in time (JIT). Retrieved from to an external site.
Vonderembse, M. & White, G. (2013). Operations Management. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.eduLinks to an external site.
Student 2: Cheryl:
Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory management systems, often referred to as lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production Process, involve inventory availability based on the manufacturing process as opposed to carrying inventory, on hand, in a warehouse (Jespersen & Skjott-Larsen, 2005).  “JIT is considered to be one of the best ways to improve profitability since it implicates that inventory is ordered and received only when needed, as opposed to keeping a previously purchased stock of items” (Jespersen & Skjott-Larsen, 2005, p.19).  Many industries use JIT such as computer manufacturers, automobile manufacturers, and even fast food chains like McDonalds use JIT (Jespersen & Skjott-Larsen, 2005).  Although JIT is becoming a growing practice, some industries are not in a position to incorporate JIT.  Industries that have unpredictable needs would struggle with incorporating JIT.  For example, the medical industry is one industry in which JIT would be nearly impossible to implore because of the unpredictability of the services required to save lives. The pharmaceutical industry, such as pharmacies, may be another industry that would struggle with JIT, again because of the unpredictability of the needs of their patients/customers.  Most small businesses will also struggle with JIT because of the lack of resources such as vendors, the lack of finances to purchase on demand, and the unpredictability of their customer base.  Despite the obstacles, all industries, with a little creativity, could implement components of JIT.
Reference (s)
Jespersen, B. D., & Skjott-Larsen, T. (2005). Supply chain management: in theory and practice. Copenhagen Business School Press DK.
Vonderembse, M. A., & White, G. P. (2013). Operations management [Electronic version]. Retrieved from
Student 1: Mark
In trying to determine the scheduling procedures for various types of service operations, such as restaurants, hospitals, and airlines, you will find that each have their own unique ways of scheduling. When it comes to scheduling at hospitals or any medical facility, its best to try and schedule the appointments from noon, and go backwards with the time, and anything after noon go forward with the time slots. Establishing this as the standard will help you maintain maximum productivity and ensure that the bulk of the day is scheduled out ( Another key way to schedule at any sort of medical facility is to try and prioritize the appointments depending on the severity, or level of care needed for their visit. I would schedule these types of appointments for first thing in the morning, and leave the standard check-up appointments for later in the day. When dealing with scheduling procedures at restaurants, you have a little more to think about here. Many factors come into play, such as tipping, time off, overtime, and employing minors with alcohol sales. You want to ensure you staff appropriately for the busiest times of the day, so you don’t get overwhelmed, and try to include your best employees during those times who can handle a busy restaurant. Offer up during meetings with your staff a chance to have open dialogue when building the schedule, knowing that the employees also have lives outside of work and may not want to work the night shift all the time. When scheduling for airlines, you find that this most times is done by one individual for each airline company. This person usually has a calm and confident demeanor, who speaks proficient, and of course has a good overall knowledge of how airlines operate. These schedulers more than likely can do all their work off the computer, and even work remote including in different states from where their airlines is based out of. Their job is very complex, however, with the correct training they can schedule a smooth airline operation from their couch if needed.
Reference (2019) How to Schedule Patients Effectively. to an external site.
Student 2: David:
Scheduling is one of the most important part of a business because you have to plan almost everything. According to Vonderembse (2013) “Scheduling is required for making goods and for providing servicessuccessfully” (sec. 12.1). Back to the 90’s I worked for American Airlines and everything was schedule and timed. Not many people realize that the plane leaving Miami Florida to New York and make that trip four times in a day or might move on to another state on the same day. For example, If the plane is delayed leaving Florida my a few hours it can delay the flight that is coming back from New York because the same plane is getting used. If the delay was caused my a mechanical issue there is not much that the airlines can do but use another plane to save the delay. If it was delayed because of the cleaning of the plane took to long it will cost them time and money lost. This is why when you are getting off the plane you see the team coming in behind you to start cleaning. There is no time to delay and all the people are schedule to do a job.
The same thing goes for a housekeeper. Normally a housekeeper is assigned 10 to 12 rooms in a given day. Two to three of the rooms are a full checkout which requires a deep clean of the room. This can take a least two hours each. This is one of the reasons that most hotels have the guest checkout by 11am. The goal is to get all the rooms that require no services or a quick cleanup done early and the full checkout are done after 11am and ready by 3pm for check-in. If a housekeeper falls behind or calls out sick it cause a delay and that is when they always have to make sure there is a backup housekeeper for these issues. Either to help or make up for the sick employee.  
Vonderembse, M. A., & White, G. P. (2013). Operations management [Electronic version]. Retrieved from

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